EPS is a widely used packaging medium for fresh fruit，vegetables and seafood to protect these products during storage and transportation between grower and market．EPS packaging reduces the cost to consumers by reducing the waste associated with spoilage that can occur in transportation to markets．
It is also used to protect fragile and expensive manufactured goods during storage and tran sportation between factory and consumer．
For Australian made goods，the annual consumption of EPS packaging for agricultural products is 5000mt／year and 2000mt／year for other protective packaging purposes．
EPS is chosen for these applications because of its attractive balance of properties，including thermal insulation，shock absorption，moisture resistance，light weight and suitability for food contact．EPS has been shown to extend the freshness of fruit when compared with alternative packaging materials such as cardboard．
Sandwich Constructions: Light Outer Walls:
The need for rationalized building methods and employment of materials has encouraged the use of light prefabricated components. Lightweight walls are now largely assembled from such components, which are commonly sandwich constructions and may have provision for ventilated sidings.
In order to control the environment within buildings, high thermal inertia is often essential. In cool climates with heated buildings this is always the case; in warm climates much depends on the relative importance of daytime and nighttime use, the diurnal temperature range, whether or not the building is air- conditioned, and to what extent the building is exposed to direct sunlight. In general, all air- conditioned buildings need high thermal inertia.
The thermal inertia of a building can be indicated in several ways, but a simple measure is the quantity C/AU, where C is the total thermal capacity of the building and its contents, A is the area of the enclosing elements through which heat is lost or gained by transmittance, and U is the average thermal transmittance of the enclosing elements. The quantity C/AU has the dimensions of time; if it is large, fluctuations in inside temperature will lag behind fluctuations in outside temperature, and will be very much smaller.
The thermal capacity of outside walls decreases with their superficial mass. However, to keep C/~U constant, it is not necessary to reduce the maximum value of U in direct pro- portion to the superficial mass; floors, partitions, etc. make a considerable contribution to the total thermal capacity, C, and in any case many light materials have higher specific thermal capacities than masonry (e. g. wood, ca 2 j/g. k, compared with ca 0.8j/g. k for brickwork or concrete ). Guidance on the ~um thermal transmittances of lightweight walls is often included in national standards, which can take into account typical layouts and materials, both of which affect the thermal capacities of buildings.
For instance, in West Germany it has been recommended that the maximum value of U for most areas should be 0.9W/m2. k for wails with superficial masses of 200kg/m2 or more, falling linearly to O. 6w/m2. k at 50kg/m2.
Thermal bridging often requires considerable attention in lightweight walls; particular care should be taken with the insulation of joints and metal frames.
EPS External Wall Insulation:
EPS external wall insulation is an accepted way of adding thermal value to the outer face of most external walls of buildings.
Its versatility enables it to be used with a variety of finishes including plastic weather-boarding, cladding, tile hanging and reinforced- render systems. EPS external wall insulation when used on the external face of masonry wall maximizes the natural thermal capacity of the wall and assists in the reduction of thermal fluctuations.
Given that heating and air- conditioning interior rooms consume vast amounts energy and accounts for approximately 80% of total energy consumption with 30% being lost through un- insulated walls, external wall insulation offers a highly cost effective way of reducing this loss.
Exterior Insulating and Finishing System For 30 years, the stucco- like appear- ance of Exterior Insulating and Finish Systems (EII~) (Fig 6 - 23) has given commercial buildings high curb appeal, broad design and color flexibility, low maintenance and durability, and high energy efficiency. In more recent years, the residential marketplace has begun enjoying the benefits of EIFS, as well. But in some residential applications, them had been a problem.
Moisture that had passed through windows and door openings was trapped behind the Ells exterior; in some cases the moisture caused rotting of wall studs and sheathing. The problem was summarized in the New York Times 'article, "Some Users of Artificial Stucco Find Headaches Are Real", : "The trouble is that EIFS are too waterproof. Water that gets trapped behind the EIFS exterior has nowhere to go and begins soaking into studs or plywood sheathing." For this mason many EIFS manufacturers have innovated moisture- mitigation systems
that effectively prevent moisture buildup on the rare occasions that moisture makes its way behind the EIFS exterior.